In 1973, in response to the government's call for the development of national sport, Formosa Plastics Group Chairman Yung-Ching Wang donated a gymnasium, the first domestic dome in Taiwan, to the government by purchasing a land.
In May 1984, for the purpose of long-term national sport development, the Ministry of Education set up a 66-hectare multi-functional sports park, including the then donated gymnasium and other expropriated private land. Based on the existing facilities and planning, National College of Physical Education and Sports was established within the sports park, exercising functions such as education, training, sport competition, recreation and so on.
On July 1, 1987, National College of Physical Education and Sports was formerly established and Prof. Min-Chung Tsai was hired as the first president by the Ministry of Education. On July 1, 1990, Prof. Chin-Sung Chiu became the second president; Prof. Hsien-Ching Yeh became the third president on July 1, 1999. Prof. Hung-Shih Chou became the fourth President on July 1, 2002.
In the beginning, there were only two programs: the Graduate Institute of Physical Education and the Department of Athletics. Afterward the college expanded by adding the Department of Physical Education (two-year program in 1988), the Graduate Institute of Sports Science (1989), the Department of Athletic Training and Health (1990), the Graduate Institute of Coaches (1994) and the Department of Sport Management (1996), the Graduate Institute of Physical Education (Ph.D. and EMBA programs), the Graduate Institute of Coaches (Master program), the Department of Sport Promotion (renamed after the two-year program of the Department of Physical Education in 1999), the Graduate Institute of Sports Science (Master program in 2000), the Graduate Institute of Coaches (Ph.D. program in 2001). In 2002, the Department of Athletics was divided into three departments: Department of Sports Training Science- Combats, Balls and Athletics, and the Department of Adapted Physical Education was established.
On February 1, 2008, “National College of Physical Education and Sports” was renamed “National Taiwan Sport University” with two campuses (Taichung campus and Taoyuan campus). Prof. Hung-Shih Chou became the first president of National Taiwan Sport University. In 2009, National Taiwan Sport University-Taoyuan campus was officially renamed National Taiwan Sport University (NTSU); National Taiwan Sport University-Taichung campus was renamed National Taiwan College of Physical Education. On August 1, 2010, Prof. Chin-Hsung Kao became the second president of NTSU and was approved by the University Affairs Council for another 4-year presidency in 2013.
Under the leadership of President Kao, National Taiwan Sport University had 7 undergraduate programs and 10 graduate programs, with nearly 2,300 students on campus.
2017 Universiade competitions of swimming, handball, archery hold in National Taiwan Sport University. In November 2017, Universiade Memorial Plaza unveiled in National Taiwan Sport University, as recording the Honor of Universiade, also becoming a new rest spot for citizen. In August 2018, the Ministry of Education hired Prof. Ping-Kun Chiu as the fourth president of NTSU. Setting up Chinese Language Center, and Sport Policy and Social Research Center in February 2019. In August 2020, setting up Sport Promotion Special Class for Aborigines under College of Physical Education.